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Notation used in lineage charts

The notation used in these lineage charts is an adaptation of a standard notation for pedigrees. The most common pattern is

In these charts males are shown in rectangles, while females are shown in rectangles with slightly rounded corners.

The equals sign joins a husband and wife:

The upper line of the equals sign can be viewed as indicating the legal bond of marriage. The lower line can be viewed as indicating the physical relationship, and if the marriage produced offspring, it is reshaped to lead to the offspring:

The upper line is thus omitted in a non-marriage relationship producing offspring:

In cases of multiple marriages a number is placed above the equals sign on the side of the person to whom it refers. For example,

shows a relationship which is the second marriage for the husband and the third marriage for the wife. Note: a 1 above the equals sign is used only for the first of two or more marriages; no number is supplied for the default case of first and only marriage.

Connections which are somewhat uncertain are shown by dashed lines:

In contrast to this, dotted lines are used to indicate omission (as with an ellipsis in text). Thus

shows that someone is a descendant of the given couple, but the intervening generations are omitted (and perhaps unknown).