A Tentative
Academic Lineage

Erasmus in 1523 as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger 
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466/69-1536), Theologiae Baccalaureus / Divinitatis Doctor, Collège de Montaigu / University of Turin, 1497 /1506. A Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic theologian, he has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists." He was a prolific author, and he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament.
Thesis advisor
Jakob Milich (1501-1559), Liberalium Artium Magister / Med. Dr., Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau / Universität Wien, 1520 / 1524. His other thesis advisor was Ulrich Zasius (1461-1536).
Thesis advisor
Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553), Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1535.
Thesis advisor
Johannes Hommel, Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1543. His other thesis advisor was Philipp Melanchthon, the theologian and educator who was Martin Luther's "right hand man."
Thesis advisor
Valentin Thau, Magister artium, Universität Leipzig, 1555. Besides Wittich, another student of Thau was Tycho Brahe, and Johannes Kepler was a student of Brahe.
Thesis advisor
Paul Wittich, Magister artium, Universität Leipzig / Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1566.
Thesis advisor
Duncan Liddel, Magister artium / Medicinae Dr., Universität Viadrina Frankfurt an der Oder / Universität Breslau / Universität Helmstedt, 1582 / 1596. His thesis was titled Themata De Melancholia. His other advisor was John Craig, whose academic ancestry can be traced back to Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), who wrote De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body) and who is considered the founder of modern human anatomy.
Thesis advisor
Cornelius Martini, Magister artium, Universität Helmstedt, 1592. His thesis was titled Disputatio de philosophia eiusque instrumentis.
Thesis advisor
Georg Calixt, Magister artium / Theol. Dr., Universität Helmstedt, 1607.
Copernicus in the early 1500s;
portrait from Toruń (Thorn)

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), Juris utriusque Doctor, Uniwersytet Jagielloński / Università di Bologna / Università degli Studi di Ferrara / Università di Padova, 1499. His academic pedigree can be traced back to Heinrich von Langenstein, Magister artium / Theol. Dr., Université de Paris, 1363 /1375. Copernicus was the first person to produce a scientifically-based heliocentric model of the solar system. His book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) is generally considered to mark the beginning of modern astronomy and even the beginning of the Scientific Revolution.
Teacher, mentor, collaborator –› only student
Georg Joachim von Lauchen Rheticus* (1514-1574), Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1535. He facilitated the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus and popularized its concepts.
Mentor, collaborator
Valentin Otto (d. 1603), Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1570.
Thesis advisor
Melchior Jöstel, Magister artium / Medicinae Dr., Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1583 / 1600. His other advisor besides Otto was Andreas Schato, an academic descendant of Copernicus (by a longer path than Otto) and also of Erasmus.
Thesis advisor
Ambrosius Rhodius, Magister artium / Medicinae Dr., Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1600 / 1610. His other advisor besides Jöstel was Ernestus Hettenbach, an academic descendant of Copernicus (by a longer path than Jöstel) and also of Erasmus.
Thesis advisor
Christoph Notnagel, Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1630.
                Thesis advisors
Johann Andreas Quenstedt, Magister artium / Theol. Dr., Universität Helmstedt / Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1643 / 1644. His theses were titled Disputatio astronomico-Geographica de Insperato Solis Exortu, qui Hollandis contigit in Nova Zembla anno 1597 and De Transsvbstantiatione Contra Pontificios Exercitatio.
Thesis advisor
Michael Walther, Jr., Magister artium / Theol. Dr., Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1661 / 1687. His theses were titled Manichaeismi recensio historica and Disputatio theologica inauguralis de Paulina Petri increpatione.
Thesis advisor
Johann Franz Buddeus, Magister artium, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 1687. His thesis was titled De Symbolis eucharisticis.
Thesis advisor
Johann Matthias Gesner, Magister artium, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, 1715. His thesis was titled Institutiones rei scholasticae.
Thesis advisor
Johann August Ernesti, Magister philosophiae, Universität Leipzig, 1730.
Thesis advisor
Christian Gottlob Heyne, Magis-
ter Juris, Universität Leipzig, 1752. His thesis was titled Disputatio de jure praediatorio.
Thesis advisor
Georg Ludwig König (1766-1848), Artium Liberalium Magister, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 1790.
dissertation dedicatee,
dissertation advisor?
Christiaan Huygens, Artium Liberalium Magister / Juris utriusque Doctor, Universiteit Leiden / Université d'Angers, 1647 / 1655.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz*, Dr. jur., Universi-
tät Altdorf, 1666. His thesis was titled Dispu-
tatio inauguralis de casibus perplexis in jure
Christian M. von Wolff*, Dr. phil., Universität Leipzig, 1704. His thesis was titled Dissertatio algebraica de algorithmo infinitesimali differentiali.
Dissertation advisor
Martin Knutzen, Dr. phil., Universität Königsberg, 1732. His thesis was titled Dissertatio inauguralis de concordia rationis cum fide, in locis, de iustitia Dei.
Dissertation advisor
Immanuel Kant, Ph.D., Universität Königsberg, 1770. His thesis was titled Meditationum quarundam de igne succincta delineatio; Principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae nova dilucidatio.
Signif. intellect. influence, correspondent
Christoph Martin Wieland, b. 1733 in what is now the German state of Baden-Württemberg, d. 1813.
   He was a precocious child and when he left school in 1749 was widely read in the Latin classics and the leading contemporary French writers. In 1750 he went to the University of Tübingen as a student of law, but his time was mainly taken up with literary studies. His novel Geschichte des Agathon (1766-1767), under the guise of a Greek fiction, describes his own spiritual and intellectual growth. Between 1769 and 1772 he was professor of philosophy at Erfurt. In 1773, he founded Der Teutsche Merkur (German Mercury), which under his editorship (1773-1789) became the most influential literary review in Germany.
   Without creating a school in the strict sense of the term, Wieland had a strong influence on the German literature of his time. The verse-romance and the
novel—more especially in Austria—benefited by his example, and even the Romanticism of a later date borrowed from him in its excursions into the literatures
of southern Europe. The qualities which distinguish his work, his fluent style and light touch, his careless frivolity rather than poetic depth, show him to have
been in literary temperament more akin to Ariosto and Voltaire than to the more spiritual and serious leaders of German poetry; but these very qualities in Wieland's poetry introduced a balancing element into German classical literature and added materially to its fullness and completeness. This is not to say, however, that Wieland is not to be counted among the great German poetic geniuses. Immanuel Kant refers to Wieland in the same sentence as Homer, citing him as an example of Kant's idea of artistic genius (Critique of Judgment, 5:309).
Mentor, collaborator, father-in-law
Karl Leonhard Reinhold*, b. 1757 in Vienna, d. 1823.
   He studied at the Jesuit Seminary in Vienna for a year, until the order was suppressed, at which time he entered the Barnabite seminary. Following his ordination, he became a Barnabite monk and served for
several years as a parish priest and teacher of philosophy. His early publications showed him to be an enthusiastic exponent of radical Enlightenment and religious toleration. In 1783 Reinhold moved to Leipzig and converted to Protestantism. He also became a Freemason and a member of the Illuminati, and he remained an active Freemason until the end of his life. Possessed of a restless, inquiring spirit, Reinhold's early intellectual trajectory led him from orthodox Catholicism, to reformed Catholicism, to materialism and atheism, and then to Leibnizianism and to Humean skepticism. Yet he always remained true to the ideal of “Enlightenment,” at least as he understood that ideal, and he never ceased to insist that philosophy ought to make a practical difference in the world. For all of his forays into the most technical and arcane philosophical debates and issues, he never wavered in his insistence that true “popularity” must remain the goal of philosophy, and that the ultimate test of any system is its capacity for convincing everyone of its truth. Enlightenment, for Reinhold, was no abstract pursuit of truth, but a program of religious, moral, social, and political reform. Coupled with this commitment to popularity, was a pedagogic zeal to do everything in his power to spread the message of popular Enlightenment as widely and as effectively as possible.
   In 1786-87 he published his Briefe über die Kantische Philosophie (Letters on the Kantian Philosophy) in Der Teutsche Merkur; these letters were most important in making Kant known to a wider circle of readers. Reinhold tried to show that Kant's philosophy provided an alternative to either religious revelation or philosophical skepticism and fatalistic pantheism. As a result of these Letters, Reinhold received a call to the University of Jena, where he taught from 1787 to 1794.
   In 1789 he published his chief work, the Versuch einer neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermögens (Essay towards a New Theory of the Faculty of Representation), in which he attempted to simplify the Kantian theory and make it more of a unity. In 1794 he accepted a call to Kiel, where he taught until his death. He was an immensely popular and influential teacher.
significant intellectual influence?
Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg*, b. 1802 in Eutin, near Lübeck, d. 1872. His gymnasium teacher at Eutin, Georg König, introduced him to Kant's system of thought. He was educated at the universities of Kiel, Leipzig, and Berlin. He became more and more attracted to the study of Plato and Aristotle, and his doctoral dissertation (Berlin, 1826) was an attempt to reach a more accurate knowledge of the Platonic philosophy through Aristotle's criticisms of it; it was titled Platonis de ideis et numeris doctrina ex Aristotele illustrata (Plato's Doctrine of Ideas and Number, in the Light of Aristotle's Criticisms). After serving several years as private tutor, he was appointed extraordinary professor at the University of Berlin (now Humboldt University of Berlin) in 1833, and four years later he was advanced to an ordinary professorship. For nearly 40 years he proved himself markedly successful as a teacher, during the greater part of which time he had to examine in philosophy and pedagogics all candidates for the scholastic profession in Prussia. Trendelenburg's philosophizing is conditioned throughout by his loving study of Plato and Aristotle, whom he regards not as opponents but as building jointly on the broad basis of idealism. His own standpoint may be called a modern version of Aristotelianism.
Dissertation advisor                                  Dissertation advisor?                                    Teacher, significant intellectual influence –›
Ernst Laas (1837–1885) was a German philosopher. He studied theology and philosophy under Trendelenburg at Berlin, receiving a Ph.D. in 1859. His dissertation was titled Ευδαιμονία. Aristotelis in ethicis principium quid velit et valeat. He eventually became Professor of Philosophy in the new University of Strasbourg. In his Analogien der Erfahrung (1876) he keenly criticized Kant's transcendentalism, and in his chief work Idealisinus und Positivismus (1878-1884), he drew a clear contrast between Platonism, from which he derived transcendentalism, and positivism, of which he considered Protagoras the founder. Laas in reality was a disciple of Hume. Throughout his philosophy he endeavored to connect metaphysics with ethics and the theory of education.
Hermann Cohen* (1842–1918) was a German-Jewish philosopher. He was educated at the Gymnasium at Dessau, at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau, and at the universities of Breslau, Berlin, and Halle. He started his dissertation on Plato and Aristotle in Berlin but presented it at Halle in 1865 (its title was
Philosophorum de Antinomia Necessitatis
et Contigentiae Doctrinae
). He received his habilitation in 1871 (his thesis or habilitationsschrift was titled Die systematischen Begriffe in Kant's vorkritischen Schriften nach ihrem Verhältniss zum kritischen Idealismus). He taught for many years at the University of Marburg, and he was one of the founders of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism.

Dissertation advisor
Habilitationsschrift advisor
Paul Gerhard Natorp* (1854-1924), philosophy professor at Marburg, where he was one of the leading advocates of neo-Kantianism; Ph.D., 1876, from Strasbourg under Ernst Laas (his dissertation was titled Dissertatio quos auctores in ultimo belli Peloponnesiaci annis describendis secuti sint Diodorus, Plutarchus, Cornelius, Justinus); habilitation, 1881, from Marburg under Hermann Cohen (his thesis or habilitationsschrift was titled Descartes' Erkenntnistheorie. Eine Studie zur Vorgeschichte des Kritizismus). Besides Karl Schmidt, another student of Natorp was Boris Pasternak, who has charmingly described the academic environment at Marburg in Safe Conduct: An Autobiography and Other Writings; some other students were Karl Barth, Ernst Cassirer, and Edmund Husserl.
Dissertation advisor
Karl Schmidt* (1874-1961), of Harvard University, Bates College, University of Florida, Tufts College, Northwestern College, and Carleton College (where he was Professor and Chairman of Philosophy from 1928-1946); he studied mathematics, physics, and philosophy at the University of Marburg, from which he received a Ph.D. in 1898 under Paul Natorp; an ardent Quaker later in life, he was the author of The Creative I and the Divine and From Science to God: Prolegomena to a Future Theology.
             Dissertation advisors
    student, popularizer
George Sylvester Morris* (1840-1889) studied at various European universities and was most strongly influenced by Adolf Trendelenburg (whom he later popularized in the U.S.), but he chose not to take a Ph.D. He was a philosophy professor at the University of Michigan and Johns Hopkins; besides Royce, another student who received a Ph.D. from Hopkins under Morris was John Dewey (1859-1952).
Dissertation advisor
Josiah Royce (1855-1916); Ph.D., 1878, Johns Hopkins. Royce’s dissertation is titled Of the Interdependence of the Principles of Knowledge, an Investigation of the Problems of Elementary Epistemology, in Two Chapters, with an Introduction on the Principal Ideas and Problems in Which the Discussion Takes Its Rise. He taught philosophy, first at the University of California, Berkeley, then at Harvard from 1882 until his death, thanks to the good offices of William James, who was at once Royce's friend and philosophical antagonist. Royce was an objective idealist philosopher; his key works include The World and the Individual (1899-1901) and The Problem of Christianity (1913). Royce is also perhaps the founder of the Harvard school of logic, Boolean algebra, and foundations of mathematics. His logic, philosophy of logic, and philosophy of mathematics were influenced by Charles S. Peirce and Albert Bray Kempe. Students who in turn learned logic at Royce's feet include Clarence Irving Lewis, who went on to pioneer modal logic, Edward Vermilye Huntington, the first to axiomatize Boolean algebra, and Henry M. Sheffer, known for his eponymous stroke. Royce's writings on logic and mathematics are reminiscent in some ways of Bertrand Russell's much better known Principia Mathematica.
Norbert Wiener (1894-1964). He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1913 at the age of 18. (Royce was his initial advisor but had to withdraw because of illness, and Schmidt, at nearby Tufts, took over.) As a John Thornton Kirkland Fellow of Harvard, he studied logic and philosophy under Bertrand Russell, G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, G. E. Moore, and J. M. E. McTaggart at Cambridge (1913) and mathematics under David Hilbert, Edmund Husserl and Edmund Landau at Göttingen (1914); in his memoir Ex-Prodigy Wiener says, "I have never heard the equal of Hardy for clarity, for interest, or for intellectual power. If I am to claim any man as my master in my mathematical training, it must be G. H. Hardy." As a Frederick Sheldon Fellow of Harvard, he studied philosophy and mathematics under John Dewey at Columbia (1915). He taught for many years at MIT. He was a pioneer in the study of stochastic and noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems. Wiener is perhaps best known as the founder of cybernetics, a field that formalizes the notion of feedback and has implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, philosophy, and the organization of society.
Photo courtesy of the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT
Dissertation advisor
Norman Levinson (1912-1975), Professor of Mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1934 he received both his bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering from MIT, where he already had taken almost all of the graduate-level courses in mathematics and had written a dissertation under Norbert Wiener. Wiener arranged for him to receive the MIT Redfield Proctor Traveling Fellowship and spend 1934-35 at Cambridge University working with G. H. Hardy, with the assurance that MIT would reward him with a doctorate upon his return. Indeed, he received a Sc.D. in 1935 from MIT. Later Levinson was a postdoctoral student at the Institute for Advanced Study and Princeton University, supervised by John von Neumann. When Jesse Douglas, an MIT mathematics professor, became ill and unable to teach, Levinson was an obvious replacement and was recommended by Wiener, but anti-Semitism led MIT's provost, Vannevar Bush, to reject the recommendation. However, the Cambridge mathematician G. H. Hardy, on a visit to MIT, went with Wiener to the provost's office to protest against the decision. Hardy is reported to have said: Tell me, Mr Bush, do you think you're running an engineering school or a theological seminar? Is this the Massachusetts Institute of Theology? If it isn't, why not hire Levinson? Levinson was hired, beginning his long and productive career as an MIT faculty member. John Forbes Nash, a protégé of Levinson in the MIT Mathematics Department and a winner of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work in game theory, is the subject of the book A Beautiful Mind, made into a movie starring Russell Crowe and directed by Ron Howard.
Dissertation advisor
Robert B. Davis (1926-1997), Professor, Syracuse University and Rutgers University.

Dissertation advisor
Joseph M. Scandura, Ph.D., Syracuse University, 1962; Professor, University of Pennsylvania.

Dissertation advisor
Don C. Stone, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1985; Associate Professor of Computer Science, Rowan University (retired 1999); Department Chair, 1992-1999.

Notation: the label above the curving arrow gives the role of the person above the arrow in relation to the person below, e.g., "Teacher." Several roles may be itemized, separated by commas, e.g., "Teacher, significant intellectual influence," though a role would not be itemized if it is subsumed or implied by a role already given. Note that "Correspondent" implies mutual intellectual influence. If needed, the role of the person below the arrow in relation to the person above can also be specified, following a "–›", e.g., "Teacher –› only student."

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An asterisk following a name (above) is a link to a note (below) about that person. Conversely, the name at the beginning of a note (below) is a link to the person's information (above).

This draft chart (at www.donstonetech.com/Charts/AcademicGenealogy/StoneAcademicGenealogy.htm) was prepared by Don Stone, don@donstonetech.com. (It was most recently updated on 10/29/2017.) I would be grateful for any corrections or additional information, particularly for descriptions of the nature of some of the relationships (often not literally "advisor"). I hope that this webpage can be a vehicle for a collaborative process of refining and documenting especially the European portion of this lineage. Note that I have not verified most of the information for the period before 1750.

   MGP: the Mathematics Genealogy Project (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/)
      (See also https://academictree.org/math/tree.php?pid=168355)
   PFT Blog: the Philosophy Family Tree Blog (http://philtree.blogspot.com/)

   A proper presentation of an academic genealogy should have many of the characteristics of a well-done family genealogy: sources should be specified for all information, inferences and hypotheses should be identified as such and explained, conflicting sources should be analyzed (with greater weight generally given to "primary" sources, e.g., university records, dissertation title pages), etc. In addition, for academic genealogies the nature of each relationship should be specified (and sourced), e.g., "Teacher", "Significant intellectual influence", "Dissertation advisor", etc. I have made a start in this direction with the notes below, focusing first on disputed or murky areas.

   The interesting aspect of an academic pedigree is that it involves the transmission of knowledge, methodology, and even outlook, through a sequence of sustained mentor/student relationships. The relation of dissertation advisor to advisee is a typical means for this intellectual transmission in recent times. (Of course, in some cases the former students may revise the conceptual framework in which they were trained prior to transmitting it to others, or they may even reject it completely). In earlier times, the mentor/student relationship might not involve thesis advising and might even occur outside an academic context (e.g., the case of Copernicus/Rheticus). Biographical information must be examined in order to see whether the relationship was sustained over a period of time and whether significant intellectual transmission took place.
   In the above chart I have used two shades for the curved arrows connecting mentors and their students.
For the period from 1800 to the present:
   • The more frequent darker arrows are used to connect a dissertation advisor to the dissertation's author (or for some United Kingdom
      universities even into the early 1900s, an M.A. advisor to his/her advisee).
   • The lighter arrows are used for relationships other than advisor to advisee.
For the period prior to 1800:
   • The darker arrows also are used to connect an advisor to a student receiving the degree master of arts, philosophy, or law,
      or another degree in law, theology, or medicine.
   • The lighter arrows are generally used for relationships other than thesis advisor to author, but darker ones may be used in such cases
      if it seems clear that significant intellectual transmission occurred even though not via thesis advising.
This approach can require some biographical investigation and interpretation and thus can be somewhat subjective, but it reflects my emphasis on intellectual transmission.
   Note that Josh Dever, who maintains the PFT, says (http://archive.is/NP7S#questions, accessed 10/29/2017): "What relationship is being tracked in the tree? As much as possible, I have assigned parentage according to the official dissertation advisor. This means, in particular, that parentage should not be read as 'greatest philosophical influence'. If philosopher X worked closely with Y and Z in graduate school, and Y in fact played the greatest role in the shaping of the dissertation, but Z was the official chair, then Z goes down as the parent of X." The advantage of this approach is that it is completely objective. Since I have no reluctance to supply multiple "parents" (unlike Dever), I would handle this situation by having appropriately labeled arrows from both Y and Z to X.

   The older relationships (early 19th century or before) are not as clearcut as many people seem to think or believe. For example, in the early 19th century there was really no uniformity; the advisor may have made a major contribution to the thesis or—more commonly—none at all. I believe that this may explain the somewhat obscure circumstances of Trendelenburg's or Cohen's thesis. What I suggest may have happened is that they wrote their theses on their own, in their own time, with little or no supervison at all. (Or perhaps some coaching from a gymnasium teacher, like in Trendelenburg's case from König.) After the work was finished, the candidate submitted it to the university, and the thesis was examined by a committee. If the committee approved it, then the candidate got an opportunity to defend it, and if successful, he got his degree. Strictly speaking, the closest thing to an advisor would be the chairman of the examination committee (or the dean/chairman of the department), but in fact his contribution as an advisor would be exactly zero. That may also explain why Trendelenburg's thesis was dedicated to König, printed in Leipzig, but defended in Berlin, or in Cohen's case why his thesis was defended in Halle rather than Berlin.

   "Math Masters Trace Their Intellectual Lineage," by Samuel Arbesman, Wired, June 2011 (http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/05/st_mathancestry/). This article and chart are based on the MGP, so it is surprising that the line from Abraham Kästner to Johann Pfaff to Carl Friedrich Gauss was not included in the chart.

   The habilitation is the extra post-doctoral qualification needed to lecture at a university in Germany and other countries. It requires the candidate to prepare a thesis (the Habilitationsschrift) based on independent rather than supervised research. An academic committee examines the candidate on this thesis; a lecture by the candidate may also be part of the process.


Much of the biographical information is from Wikipedia (a convenient first source to check, though not always reliable or well-documented). Most of the earlier data on degrees, universities and dates comes from the MGP. I have generally inferred the relation of "Thesis advisor" for this earlier period, except when I had explicit information to the contrary (as with Copernicus and Rheticus, for example).

* Karl Schmidt: Additional information about Schmidt comes from the Carleton College archives, as reported in http://www.math.ufl.edu/~theral/ch3hist.html (accessed on 11/30/2008).

* Paul Gerhard Natorp: Some biographical material on Natorp begins on p. 3 of vol. 1 of Cohen und Natorp, by Helmut Holzhey, Basel/Stuttgart: Schwabe & Co., 1986; his education at Strasbourg is covered on pp. 4-5. Hermann Cohen was Natorp's advisor for his habilitation, received in 1881 from Marburg, according to http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/philo/nrw_phil/liste.html (accessed 11/30/2008).

* Hermann Cohen: I have put a "Dissertation advisor?" label between Trendelenburg and Cohen, because Cohen's dissertation, while begun at Berlin (where Trendelenburg taught), was presented at Halle, and his degree was received from there. However, "Hermann Cohen's History and Philosophy of Science," a 2004 Ph.D. dissertation submitted by Lydia Patton to McGill University, footnote 9 on p. 9 says, "Cohen’s dissertation was submitted with the following list of professors: 'Scholis usus sum virorum Ill. Boeckh, Du Bois Reymond, Haupt, Steinthal, Trendelenburg, Werder' (Kinkel 1924, 39)." This latter reference is to Hermann Cohen; Eine Einführung in Sein Werk, by Walter Kinkel, Stuttgart: Strecker und Schröder, 1924. See Jan den Hollander's comments on relationships above.

* George Sylvester Morris: the MGP says that Morris received a Ph.D. in 1868 under Trendelenburg (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=95530, accessed 11/30/2008), but Morris did not get a PhD. For example, Pioneer: A History of the Johns Hopkins University, 1874-1889, by Hugh Hawkins, says (p. 190) "Morris had worked in the German universities from 1866 to 1868 but had not elected to take a Ph.D."

* Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg: both the MGP and the PFT (accessed 11/30/2008) give Reinhold as (one of) Trendelenburg's advisor(s), but Reinhold taught at Kiel and died in 1823, whereas Trendelenburg presented his dissertation in 1826 at Berlin. See the detailed discussion of Trendelenburg by Philip Kremer in the PFT Blog, http://philtree.blogspot.com/2005/12/additions-and-corrections.html, about 1/3 of the way down the page (accessed on 11/30/2008). Kremer quotes from several sources, based on which he guesses that Trendelenburg's advisor/examiner was either Hegel or Schleiermacher. Trendelenburg's dissertation is online (http://books.google.com/books?id=ahgi0S7pIGgC&printsec=titlepage#PPP11,M1, accessed 11/30/2008); it is dedicated to "Georgio Ludovico Koenig, philosophiae doctori et scholae Eutinensis rectori, praeceptori meo" (Georg Ludwig König, teacher of philosophy and president of the school at Eutin, my teacher). No other teacher or advisor receives any obvious mention. König is mentioned at http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/t/trendelenburg_f_a.shtml (accessed 11/30/2008) as the gymnasium teacher at Eutin who introduced Trendelenburg to the system of Immanuel Kant. See Jan den Hollander's comments on relationships above.

* Karl Leonhard Reinhold: Much of the material on Reinhold is from Dan Breazeale's article "Karl Leonhard Reinhold" in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL of current version = http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/karl-reinhold/, archive URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/karl-reinhold/ (accessed on 8/5/2011).

* Christian M. von Wolff: The MGP gives Wolff's advisors as Ehrenfried von Tschirnhaus and Gottfried Leibniz. In my current chart layout above I have room to show only one mentor for Wolff and have chosen Leibniz. From The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wolff-christian/, accessed 12/1/2008): "In 1703, under the supervision of von Tschirnhaus at the University of Leipzig, Wolff completed a doctoral dissertation entitled: Philosophia practica universalis, methodo mathematica conscripta ('On Universal Practical Philosophy, Composed from the Mathematical Method')." And later, "When Wolff completed his Latin dissertation that earned him the title of Privatdozent in 1703, the treatise was sent to Leibniz and a correspondence was spawned between them lasting nearly thirteen years." The footnote (#4) for the latter statement says: "In §70 of his Preliminary Discourse, [1728] 1963, Wolff describes his introduction to Leibniz. He writes: 'In 1703 I wrote a treatise on universal practical philosophy, using the mathematical method. I submitted this work to the examination of learned men in public debate at the Leipzig Academy, for the statutes required that an academic specimen be presented by anyone who becomes a private doctor. By this work I first became known to Leibniz, who, after obtaining a copy of it from Johannes Mencke, judged me to be worthy of his favor and friendship. I wrote this work when I was a very young man, imitating some of the recent mathematicians who gave a general treatment of the principles of arithmetic and geometry in a common universal mathematics. In this work I still discover a solid content, even after I have meditated on the theory more profoundly and have scrutinized its reason more deeply….'"

* Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: The MGP (accessed 8/5/2011) gives Leibniz's advisors as Jakob Thomasius, Erhard Weigel, Bartholomäus Leonhard Schwendendörffer, and Christiaan Huygens. Dever says on the PFT homepage (accessed 12/3/2008): "It seems that Jakob Thomasius is the best match for a parent for Leibniz." In my current chart layout above I have room to show only one mentor for Leibniz and have chosen Huygens. From Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz, accessed 12/1/2008): "Thus Leibniz began several years in Paris. Soon after arriving, he met Dutch physicist and mathematician Christiaan Huygens and realised that his own knowledge of mathematics and physics was spotty. With Huygens as mentor, he began a program of self-study that soon pushed him to making major contributions to both subjects, including inventing his version of the differential and integral calculus."

* Georg Joachim von Lauchen Rheticus: From Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheticus, accessed 12/2/2008): "He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables, and for being the only pupil of Nicolaus Copernicus..." And later, "In 1536 Rheticus was aided by Melanchthon in obtaining appointment to a teaching position in astronomy and mathematics at Wittenberg University. Two years later, Melanchthon arranged a two year leave for Rheticus in order to study with noted astronomers of the day.... In May 1539 he arrived in Frombork (Frauenburg) and spent two years there with Copernicus."